What is a Construction Site? How to Organize?
The construction site is the environment in which the construction or renovation is being carried out. It is there that all operations for preparing materials and executing structures are carried out.
One of the most important points of this place is the organization. First, because it optimizes the work, leaving all inputs at hand and, at the same time, safely positioned. This means, for example, having sand in one corner of the work, always in the same place, so that there is easy access to the material. Placing it in the middle of the road, on the other hand, would be harmful, even if the position was closer to the place of use. After all, the waste in this second situation would be greater, as well as the risk of minor accidents.
In addition to making work more efficient, then, the organization makes the construction site safe. The correct positioning of inputs and tools prevents tripping, slips, falls and other problems that could occur in a confusing space.
To guarantee the correct ordering, the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards (ABNT) has the NR18 standard. The rule defines that the construction sites must contain a dressing room, sanitary facilities and a place for meals, all to ensure that each daily activity has its defined space. No “forcing” workers to eat while sitting on the building blocks! In addition to being uncomfortable, this can create problems for your health, since there will be residues of inputs around.
A good construction site also has space set aside for the stock of materials. More than the organization, this room guarantees the preservation of the quality of the inputs. At the same time, it prevents them from being wasted. Sand left outdoors, for example, could be washed away by rainwater. Subsequently, then, it would be necessary to purchase more of the material for the continuity of the work.
How to organize the construction site?
Layout the space
The first step in organizing the construction site is to plan its layout. That is, to plan where each space and input will be positioned, so that the safety and speed of execution of the work are obtained.
Making this planning requires only paper, pen and attention. Draw the shape of your land, and then mark the place to be built. The rest of the lot should be used for positioning the room for supplies, for the cafeteria, dressing room and so on.
In the layout of the construction site, it is also necessary to point out the installation of sidings around the work. In addition to ensuring the safety of the space, they delimit the location, in order to facilitate the notion of the extension available for construction. Generally, sidings are made of cheaper plywood.
It is also important to position a central for preparing steel and carpentry. In each of the spaces, all the tools used in cutting, polishing and other preparation of the inputs will be arranged and prepared. The option makes activities faster and safer.
A large-scale project still requires an office, from which the person in charge of construction will be in charge of all activities. It is this professional who does all the administrative and technical control work. It is also necessary to count on the guardhouse, a guardhouse for an employee to monitor and secure the construction site, especially at night.
Following the standards NBR 5626 (cold water building installation) and NBR 5410 (low voltage electrical installations), it is also necessary to plan the water and electricity supply of the construction site. This is fundamental, since the resources will be used for the progress of the entire construction. It is necessary to use water, for example, for the preparation of concrete, and electrical energy for the operation of the foundation’s steel cutting machines.
Have a construction shed
As mentioned, having an adequate warehouse is essential to facilitate access to materials, as well as to avoid waste. With that in mind, it is also important to mark the place where the materials are unloaded, preferably by placing the storage location very close.
At the same time, it is essential that this input location (warehouse) is close to the construction site, as this will optimize construction time, since workers will not need to travel over a very large space to get what they need.
Preferably, each type of material should be stored in a different location. Separating gravel, concrete, steel, sand and others will prevent one material from interfering with the quality of the other.
Always remember to evaluate the optimization of the work process, especially keeping the necessary inputs in an easily accessible place. It is important to note that the layout does not have to be the same throughout the construction. During the process, it is possible to change the warehouse or the toilets, for example. Also because, at the end of the work, the available space will be less, and also because the inputs that will be used (pieces for the floor, windows, etc.) will also require less space.
In addition, the warehouse can also store the tools necessary to carry out the work. Leaving the equipment mirrored is dangerous and can cause accidents. Searching for the incorrectly stored instrument will also take time, delaying work.
How to make the warehouse?
The construction site warehouse can be erected in two ways. First, through wood, plywood and wood. It is common for the workers themselves to establish the space before construction begins. In order for the environment to maintain a pleasant internal temperature, it must be covered with fiber cement tiles.
Another option is for the rental of containers, widely used mainly as changing rooms and cafeterias. The structure of a container is very solid and simple, and some even have a bathroom already installed. This can optimize the construction time and increase the convenience during the execution of the projects. If there is no option for a bathroom already installed, a great option is the rental of chemical toilets.
Attention to stock of materials
As mentioned, it is interesting that each type of input for the work is positioned in a different environment. Thus, it is possible to maintain the proper conditions for the preservation of each material. Cement, mortar and lime, for example, need to be preserved on platforms or platforms, never in direct contact with the soil. More than harming the quality of products, the floor can absorb and cause loss of part of the elements.
Concrete blocks and bricks can be placed on the ground, in flat places. They must be stacked, at a maximum height specified by the manufacturer. Otherwise, they may be damaged.
Steel bars, on the other hand, must be organized in layers, avoiding humidity, or they may rust. Sand and stones are the ones that most require protection from the rain, as they can be easily carried in the event of a storm.
The tiles, on the other hand, must be stacked vertically. This is the case with ceramic ones, since steel or fiber cement must be kept slightly inclined, but horizontally.
There are also hydraulic materials, such as pipes. To facilitate the execution of the works, they can be separated into layers according to their diameter. Meanwhile, paints and waterproofing materials need to be placed on protected and ventilated shelves. It is interesting not to remove the materials from their original packaging, as they are designed to maintain their durability.
Finally, electrical materials, floors and coverings must be purchased in the period as close to use as possible. This is because the elements are more fragile and can be damaged if they are stored on the construction site. If you decide to purchase all the necessary supplies at once – which is a great option, as it can generate discounts – you can ask the store for the fragmented delivery of the products. Thus, at the time of use, they will be made available.
5 important tips for the work
1. Schedule the purchase of materials
As we have just mentioned, the purchase of all inputs at once can be very interesting to the pocket. By purchasing a large amount of materials, the consumer has an easier time negotiating discounts with the seller, especially if the purchase is made in cash. For this, however, it is necessary to have a good forecast of what will be used.
In this situation, enlist the help of an engineer or architect. Knowing the subject, the specialist will be able to indicate exactly the quantities necessary for the construction. Before purchasing the indicated, however, ask him about the safety margin of materials. It is important to acquire a little more of what will actually be used, as the loss of inputs is common. Not exactly because of the misuse of the materials, but because they are subject to breakage or unforeseen circumstances. Also search for prices at various stores, as costs vary widely.
2. Attention to PPE
Regardless of the type of work or its extension, be it construction or renovation, it is essential that all workers use Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). More than following the law, requiring the use of items considerably decreases the risk of an accident, or may even decrease its severity, if they occur.
Among the PPE needed at a construction site are the safety helmet, boot, hearing protection, dust mask, glove and goggles. All materials must be provided by the employer, at no cost to the employee performing the work. When workers do not use the products, the work is subject to fines and interdiction.
3. Invest in signage
Even if your work is simple and small, signposts are essential to ensure safety, in the same measure as PPE. Signage can, for example, prevent accidents, indicate the location of each environment on the construction site, and even control the traffic of people.
It is interesting to use, for example, signs to remind the worker to use their PPE. Those that indicate “suspended loads”, “risk of explosion”, “high voltage loads” and “emergency exit” are some of the most used.
4. Keep the site clean
Much of the work generates rubble. After all, materials break down, it is necessary to remove the accumulation of mortar, the preparation of materials generates waste…. Leaving this debris scattered, however, is extremely damaging to the entire process. First, because it obstructs part of the path, making it difficult for workers to transit through the construction site. At the same time, waste favors the occurrence of accidents, such as trips and slips.
In addition, the accumulation of debris attracts animals, such as cockroaches and scorpions. All of them can damage the quality of the materials, as well as cause accidents – the sting of a scorpion, for example, is quite dangerous.
So that the work remains clean, then, it is common to have a bucket for disposal. Thus, at the end of each working day, workers can remove products from the jobsite and ensure that it will be optimized for carrying out activities at a later date.
5. Legalize the construction site
Any and all works require authorization from the city to be executed. This is because, the construction will change the landscape of the city, thus needing to be inspected and taxed. In order to obtain the execution authorization, it is important to have the work project in hand. This project must be done by an engineer or architect, who knows all the technical language and requirements for approval.
Construction work in condominiums requires extra attention, especially if they are going to modify the facade. In this situation, it is important to count, more than with the authorization of the city hall, with the authorization of the other residents. The desired modification needs to be submitted to the council of the condominium, which will evaluate its possibility of execution or not.
The rules vary by building, so it is important to check the information before you even hire an engineer for the project. Thus, the professional will be able to plan the work according to the specifications, facilitating its approval.
Making changes to an apartment also requires a thorough assessment of the structure. This is because, the building was designed to support a determined weight, and increasing the load can affect its entire support. The elimination of a wall can be equally harmful, as the partition can serve as a base for the entire building.
Non-regulation of the work leaves the owner of the undertaking subject to fines and sanctions. Therefore, keep the building permit in hand at the construction site, as any inspection will require complete construction documents.